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Performance Evaluation of Blowfish Algorithm on Supercomputer IMAN1
Mahmoud Rajallah Asassfeh1, Mohammad Qatawneh1 and Feras Mohamed AL-Azzeh2
1Department of Computer Science-King Abdullah II School for information technology, University of Jordan, Amman-Jordan,
2Department of computer information systems, Alzaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman-Jordan.
Cryptographic applications are becoming increasingly more important in today’s world of data exchange, big volumes of data need to be transferred safely from one location to another at high speed. In this paper, the parallel implementation of blowfish cryptography algorithm is evaluated and compared in terms of running time, speed up and parallel efficiency. The parallel implementation of blowfish is implemented using message passing interface (MPI) library, and the results have been conducted using IMAN1 Supercomputer. The experimental results show that the runtime of blowfish algorithm is decreased as the number of processors is increased. Moreover, when the number of processors is 2, 4, and 8, parallel efficiency achieves up to 99%, 98%, and 66%, respectively.
Blowfish; Encryption; MPI; Supercomputer
As we are moving to the information society, where information can travel fast, and through various modes of communication in what is called as the global village, it has become more apparent that the same information can end up in the wrong hands either by mistake, or with the intention to harm. Hence for secure communication required cryptography algorithms. Several cryptography algorithms have proposed like AES, DES, 3DES, RC2 . Among these algorithms is blowfish cryptography algorithm.
The encryption algorithms are usually divided into two types: Symmetric key encryption (private) and Asymmetric key encryption (public), in Symmetric key encryption or secret key encryption, only one key is used to encrypt and decrypt data, the key should be distributed before start sending between entities  The Symmetric key cryptography algorithms include Blowfish, AES, RC2, DES, 3DES, and RC5
In Asymmetric key encryption or public key encryption, private key and public key are used, the Public key is used for encryption and a private key is used for decryption .
The aim of this paper is to implement and evaluate the performance of parallel blowfish algorithm in terms of execution time, speedup, and parallel efficiency using Message Parallel Interface (MPI) on supercomputer IMAN1. The Iman1 is the first Jordanian supercomputer with high performance computing resources. It is used not only from inside Jordan also in the region for academic purposes. It is using 2260 PlayStation3 devices. IMAN1 is Jordan’s first and fastest High Performance Computing resource, funded by JAEC and SESAME. It is available for use by academia and industry in Jordan and the region .
Parallel and distributed computing systems are high-performance computing systems that spread out a single application over many multi-core and multi-processor computers in order to rapidly complete the task. Parallel and distributed computing systems divide large problems into smaller sub-problems and assign each of them to different processors in a typical distributed system running concurrently in parallel    .
The rest of this paper is organized as follows; Section 2 presents the related works. Section 3 reviews the blowfish algorithm, Section 4 presents the experiments and results, and Section 5 presents the conclusion.
2. Related Work
One of the very important functional features of cryptographic algorithms is cypher speed, this feature is significant in case of block cyphers since they usually work on large data sets, there are many researchers and studies to increase the speed of encryption algorithms using parallel implementation.
In  the author describes the parallelization process of the encryption algorithm and he use eight Quad- Core(32) Intel Xeon Processors 7310 Series – 1.60 GHz, from experimental result he showed that the application of the parallel encryption algorithm for multiprocessor would considerably improve the time of the data encryption and decryption, he believed that the speed-ups received are satisfactory.
In  the authors demonstrated the way of implementing blowfish cryptography algorithm on graphical processing unit (GPU) which can be used for parallel computing to improve the performance of the algorithm, the experiment shows improvement in performance of GPU in encryption and decryption of large files, they observed also that even if input file size increases, average encryption and decryption time can be reduced using GPU.
In [7 ] the authors present high throughput blowfish architecture , it integrate pipeline technique to break critical path delay and increase speed , the result show that the architecture of blowfish algorithm provide better performance due to parallel execution of the algorithm on FPGA.
In our research we implemented the blowfish algorithm on parallel platform (supercomputer) which is different from the above researches in it is architecture and the number of processors used.
3. Blowfish Algorithm
In 1993 Bruce Schneier, one of the world’s leading cryptologists, designed the Blowfish algorithm and made it available in the public domain, blowfish is a variable length key, blowfish is also a block cipher with a length of 64 bit , and has not been cracked yet, it can be used in hardware applications due to its compactness . There are two parts for this algorithm; a part that addresses the expansion of the key and apart that addresses the encryption of the data.
3.1. Key Expansion
The key Expansion of blowfish algorithm begins with the P-array and S-boxes with the utilization of many sub-keys, which requires pre-computation before data encryption or decryption. The P-array consists of eighteen 4 byte sub-keys: P1, P2…P17, P18.
Blowfish with keys up to 448 bits length is transformed into several sub-key arrays.
There are 256 entries for each of the four 32-bit S-boxes:
S1, 0, S1,1,….., S1,255
S2, 0, S2,1,….., S2,255
S3, 0, S3,1,….., S3,255
S4, 0, S4,1,….., S4,255
Below the steps of how to generate the subkeys:
This process is continued, until the entire of the P-array and 4 s-boxes are changed .
3.2. Encryption/Decryption Process
Figure 1. Example of a Blow fish algorithm
Applying the blowfish cryptography algorithm, the encryption process of the message“HI world” is passed through the following stages as shown in Fig 1. As follows:
Figure 2. Example of a Graphical of Function F
The resulting P16′ and F16′ after 16 round are then XO Red with the last two entries in the p-array (entries P17 and P18 ) and recombined to produce the 64 bit cipher text of the message “HI world “, a graphical representation of the function (F) appears in Fig 2.
4. Experiments And Results
In order to evaluate the performance of the blowfish algorithm in parallel platform experiment method was used ,the experiment conducted on IMAN1 super computer, and on sequential platform as a reference to compare the results from parallel platform with it , Fig .3 illustrates the design stages of the research which consist of the following:
Figure 3. The design stages of the research
Table 1. The Hardware and Software specifications
. Table 2. Encryption time for blowfish algorithm on IMAN1Super Computer
4.1 Encryption Time Evaluation
Figure4. Shows the run time for the blowfish algorithm, using 1 processor (sequential), when the plaintext size increased the time of encryption is increased.
Figure 4.The time of encryption for a sequential platform for different plaintext size
Figure5. illustrates the encryption time according to different number of processors, we chose 6 different data size from 4 Mbyte up to 160 Mbyte which cover small and large data size, we note from the figure the following:
Figure 5. The time of encryption for different number of processors for different plaintext size
Figure 6, and 7 show the encryption time for different plaintext size 4,8,16 Mbyte and 40, 80,160
Mbyte for different number of processors.
Figure 6. The time of encryption for different number of processors for 4, 8, 16 Mbyte
Figure 7. The time of encryption for different number of processors for 40, 80, 160 Mbyte
4.2. Speedup Evaluation
The speedup is the ratio between the sequential time and the parallel time Figure8. Illustrate the speed up to 3 different plaintext size 8 M byte, 40 M byte, 160M byte,
From Fig 8, we note the following:
So the speed up on the large size of data is better when use number of processor 32, 64,128.
Figure 8.The speedup of the blowfish algorithm on different number of processors and different plaintext size
4.3. Parallel Efficiency Evaluation
Parallel Efficiency is the ratio between the speed up and the number of processors. Fig.9 shows the parallel efficiency of blowfish algorithm on different plaintext size 8 M byte, 40 M byte, 160 M byte on different number of processors.
From Fig. 8 we note that the parallel efficiency for blowfish algorithm is the best when the number of processors = 2,3,4,8 then the parallel efficiency decrease when we increase the number of processors from 16-128.
Figure 9. The Efficiency of the blowfish algorithm on different number of processors and different plaintext size
This paper represents the performance evaluation of blowfish algorithm in the parallel platform, the algorithm is implemented using MPI library, and the experiment is performed on an IMAN1 supercomputer. The experimental results show that the run time of blowfish algorithm is decreased when increasing the number of processors, also the speed up increased when the number of processors increased, it achieved the best value when the number of processors=32 for a plaintext size of 160 Mbyte, more over the parallel efficiency is the best when the number of processors is 2,4,8 it achieve up to 99% , 98% , 66%,respectively ,while in number of processors 16 , 32, 64, 128 the parallel efficiency achieve up to 42% ,24% ,10% ,5% respectively.
The evaluation leads us to the fact that implementing blowfish algorithm in parallel structure will increase the speed of algorithm and this can be done by implementing the blowfish on multiprocessors platforms or on hardware using hardware description language which uses parallelism in the execution of the algorithm.
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Mahmoud Asassfeh, is an admitted PhD candidate in Computer Science in Jordan University,he received his Master degree in computer engineering from Yarmouk University,his research interests in network security and parallel computing.
Mohammad Qatawneh, is a Professor at computer science department, the University ofJordan. He received his Ph.D. in computer engineering from Kiev University in 1996. Dr.Qatawnehpublished several papers in the areas of parallel algorithms, networks and embedding systems. His research interests include parallel computing, embedding system, and network security
Feras AL-Azzeh is a Professor at department of computer information systems, ALzaytoonah University of Jordan, he received his PhD in Electronic Systems and Programmable Control Systems from USSR in 1991. His research interest include IT Quality Standards and IT Arabization.