International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC)



Sung Woon Lee1, and Hyunsung Kim2, 3

1Department of Information Security, Tongmyong University, Busan, Korea 2Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malawi, Zomba, Malawi 3School of Computer Science, Kyungil University, Kyungbuk, Korea


With the rapid development of mobile intelligent technologies and services, users can freely experience ubiquitous services in global mobility networks. It is necessary to provide authentications and protection to the privacy of mobile users. Until now, many authentication and privacy schemes were proposed. However, most of the schemes have been exposed to some security problems. Recently, Madhusudhan and Shashidhara (M&S) proposed a lightweight authentication scheme, denoted as the M&S scheme, for
roaming services in global mobility networks. This paper shows that the M&S scheme has security flaws including two masquerading attacks and a mobile user trace attack. After that, we propose a privacy- preserving authentication scheme for global mobility networks. The proposed scheme not only focused on the required security but also added privacy concerns focused on anonymity based on a dynamic pseudonym, which is based on exclusive-or operation, hash operation and symmetric key cryptography. Formal security analysis is performed based on Burrow-Abadi-Needdham (BAN) logic and the ProVerif tool, which concludes that the proposed scheme is secure. The analysis shows that the proposed authentication scheme is secure and provides privacy with a reasonable performance.


Authentication, Communication System Security, Global Mobility Network, Health Information management, Privacy


With the rapid development of wireless communication technology and artificial intelligence, mobility is becoming more and more important in our daily life. Users with mobile intelligent devices can enjoy rich and seamless services, such as social network services, online shopping,bank transfer and many more various services [1-3]. Roaming service shown in Fig. 1 enables a mobile user (MU) to use the services extended by his/her home agent (HA) in a foreign agent (FA). User authentications and privacy schemes play an important role in global mobility networks. There are three participants in a secure scheme for roaming service, namely MU, FA and HA. MU needs to be registered to his/her HA. When MU roams to a foreign network (FN) by a FA, MU should pass authentication from FA by helping HA in a home network (HN).

Until now, many user authentication and privacy schemes for roaming service were proposed [4-19]. Zhu and Ma proposed the first anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service based on hash function, symmetric key cryptosystem and asymmetric key cryptosystem [4]. However,Lee et al. pointed out that Zhu and Ma’s authentication scheme is vulnerable to impersonation
attack and does not achieve mutual authentication [12]. Furthermore, they also proposed an improved scheme to solve Zhu and Ma’s security weaknesses. Chang et al. showed that Lee etal.’s scheme has still security problem against the forgery attack and proposed an enhanced scheme to solve the security problem [13]. Yang et al. proposed a universal anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service [14]. It does not require the involvement of HA and thus is quite efficient in terms of communication. Zhou et al. showed that Chang et al.’s scheme in [13] could not provide user anonymity and that the session key could be compromised if MU’s real identity is leaked [15]. Meanwhile, Kuo et al. proposed an anonymous roaming authentication scheme for mobility networks based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) [16]. However, their protocol is inefficient in terms of communication. In 2015, Liu et al. proposed an anonymous authentication protocol that uses time-bound credentials for an efficient revocation. It is based on bilinear pairing and thus is inefficient in terms of computation [17]. Recently,Karuppiah and Saravanan proposed an authentication scheme, denoted by K&S scheme, with user anonymity for roaming services in global mobility networks [18]. They argued that their authentication scheme provides user anonymity and untraceability, and that it is secure against various attacks. However, Madhusudhan and Shashidhara provided cryptanalysis that K&S scheme has security weaknesses against insider attacks, stolen-verifier attacks, offline guessing attacks, denial of service (DoS) attacks and forgery attacks [19]. In addition to this, Madhusudhan and Shashidhara proposed a remedy scheme to solve the weaknesses, which is named as M&S scheme.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s


This entry was posted on October 16, 2021 by .
%d bloggers like this: